Basic Principles and Types of Water Distribution Systems

Basic Principles and Types of Water Distribution Systems

Sunday, June 16, 2024

Water distribution systems provide potable water to buildings, homes, and businesses. There are many types of water distribution systems, including gravity, pressure, and water filtration systems.

Water distribution systems are required and utilized in many different areas of industry and residential settings. This article will explain the basic principles and types of water distribution systems

Water Distribution System

Consumers in the household sector utilise water for a wide variety of activities, including drinking, cooking, washing hands and bodies, cleaning the house, washing clothes, irrigating gardens, watering animals, as well as frequently participating in a variety of commercial endeavours.

Many kinds of activities call for the utilisation of various kinds of water, and the kinds of water available could shift depending on the time of year.

The Water Distribution System is included in the larger category of the Water Supply System. A provision to bring water from its source to households with the required quality, amount, and pressure is what is known as a domestic water distribution system. This provision is often carried out by public utilities using a system of pumps and pipelines.

The term “domestic water distribution system” refers to both the source of the water as well as the infrastructure that delivers the water to individual homes. A residential water supply system can obtain water from a variety of sources including a stream, a drilling hall, a hand-dug well, or a spring.

A domestic water distribution system is a system that transports water from the treatment plant to all of the appliances and fixtures in a home so that it can be used. The water supply system in the house is designed to distribute both cold as well as hot water, depending on the user’s needs.

Pipes are used to transporting water from its original source to a variety of different appliances. Valves and faucets are used to regulate the amount of water that is supplied to different appliances (taps). The water that has been utilised is disposed of down the drain.

If you are looking for excellent solution providers of the Substation for water distribution systems in Arunachal Pradesh, here are a few of the reliable companies that offer substation as well as automation services for water distribution systems in Arunachal Pradesh, such as Konverge, AmiTech, Group Nish, Industrial Automation India, and Velox Automation.

Basic Principle of Working:

  • It is not acceptable for the water’s quality to decrease while it is being transported through the distribution pipes.
  • The water distribution system should be able to provide water to all of the planned locations while maintaining enough pressure heads throughout the system.
  • During times when there is a need to put out a fire, it must be able to give the required quantity of water.
  • The configuration of pipes should be designed in such a way that during maintenance on any part of the system, no customer will be left without a water supply.
  • It is recommended that each of the distribution system pipes must be positioned at least one metre away from or above the sewer lines.
  • In order to minimize water waste brought on by leaks, the network of pipes should have a high degree of water tightness.

Types of Water Distribution System:

There are four primary categories of water distribution systems listed by the expert of Automation for water distribution systems in Arunachal Pradesh – Group Nish;

1. Dead-end Distribution System:

When it comes to the distribution of water, this particular type of system has one main pipeline that travels down the middle of the building, while the sub-mains branch off from both sides of the structure.


After that, the sub-main lines are separated into multiple branch lines, and it is through these branch lines that service connections are made for individual homes.


  • The process of laying pipe is straightforward and uncomplicated in its design.
  • There is a requirement for a lower number of cut-off valves, and the costs of operation and maintenance are reduced.
  • Pipe laying is a straightforward process that does not call for any specialised labour.


  • Because this method is less effective at keeping appropriate pressure in high-rise structures, it is not preferred in contemporary waterworks practice.
  • It is a very dangerous situation because the entire building receives its water supply from only one pipe.
  • Because of the relatively high head loss, a bigger pipe diameter will be necessary, as will the utilisation of pumping equipment.
  • Because of the significant loss of head in the system, the amount of discharge that may be used during firefighting is restricted.
  • The available water pressure is also lower, thus a pumping system is required to compensate for this.


2. Gridiron Distribution System:

In this configuration, the primary supply lines travel through the middle of the structure, while the secondary supply lines branch off in directions that are perpendicular to the direct supply lines. The sub-mains are connected to the branch via their respective connections.


The fact that all different kinds of pipes are connected internally as well as that there are no dead ends is two of the defining characteristics of this Substation for water distribution systems in Arunachal Pradesh.


Water can reach the specific point of withdrawal from a variety of routes, which enables more flexible operation and is especially helpful when repairing work is needed.


  • The water is able to move freely through the system, and there is little chance of it becoming stagnant or accumulating debris.
  • As a result of there being fewer interconnections, there is water accessible at every site with a minimal amount of head loss.
  • From the numerous branch lines, adequate water at the necessary pressure is available to meet the needs of firefighting operations.
  • During the time when repairs are being done, very few homes will be impacted.


  • More shut-off valves are necessary for use with this system.
  • This technique requires pipes to be of a longer length and have larger diameters.
  • The analysis of the pressure, discharge, as well as velocity inside the pipes, is a challenging and time-consuming process.
  • The distribution system’s cost is going to go up in direct proportion to the number of pipes that are necessary.


3.    Ring Distribution System:

The Ring water distribution system features supply mains that are laid out in the shape of a ring around the service area. The branch pipes have crosswise connections to the main pipes as well as connections to each other.

The most reliable applications for this technology are multiple buildings that are expected to be positioned in the same general region.


  • The number of linkages has been reduced, resulting in less amount of head loss.
  • In comparison to the other distribution strategies, the discharge level is significantly higher.
  • As a result of the availability of separate main lines for each household, the number of customers who are impacted by the repairs is reduced.


  • The length of the pipe laying is the primary factor that ultimately contributes to increased prices.
  • In order to regulate the flow of water and the amount that is discharged, a number of valves are necessary.


4.    Radial Distribution System:

The Radial water distribution system partitions the entire structure into a number of separate distribution zones. If you need quality services for the Automation for water distribution systems in Arunachal Pradesh, reach out to any of these companies Konverge, AmiTech, Group Nish, Industrial Automation India, and Velox Automation, they will certainly fulfil all of your automation as well as instrumentation requirements.

Every structure includes a large raised reservoir that is positioned in the building’s geographic centre. From this reservoir, distribution pipes radiate outward towards the building’s perimeter. This method provides quick service with a minimal amount of mental strain. The layout of the system for laying pipe is a lot less complicated.


  • For the distribution of water, a radial water distribution system is typically utilised in high-rise structures.
  • Water is accessible through this system at a higher discharge while simultaneously experiencing lower head loss.
  • During the time that repairs are being made, a smaller number of customers will be affected.


  • The process of designing the system for laying pipe is a sophisticated one.
  • Because there are more connections in this system, a pipe’s total length is necessary.


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